terrible business of underground armies being shot by both sides, and so
forth, which we feared so much, having actually taken place during the
great forward advance. These opportunities were cast aside. The
Russians, who are executing and preparing military operations on the
largest scale against the heart of Germany have the right to have the com*
rnunications of their armies protected by an orderly countryside, under a
government acting in accordance with their needs.
" It was not therefore possible, so far as recognition was concerned, to
procure the dissolution of the Lublin Government as well as of the London
Government simultaneously, and start from a swept table. To do that
would be to endanger the success of the Russian offensive, and consequently
to prolong the war, with increased loss of Russian 3 British and American
blood. The House should read carefully again and again, those Members
who have doubts, the words and the terms of the Declaration, every word of
which was the subject of the most profound and searching attention by the
Heads of the three Governments, and by the Foreign Secretaries and all
" How will this Declaration be carried out ? How will phrases like
" Free and unfettered elections on the basis of universal suffrage and secret
ballot' be interpreted ? Will the "new" Government be ''properly"
constituted, with a fair representation of the Polish people, as far as can be
made practicable at the moment, and as soon as possible ? Will the elec-
tions be free and unfettered ? Will the candidates of all democratic parties
be able to present themselves to the electors, and to conduct their campaigns ?
What are democratic parties ? People always take different views. Even
in our own country there has been from time to time an effort by one party
or the other to claim that they are the true democratic party 5 and the rest
are either Bolsheviks or Tory landlords. What are democratic parties ?
Obviously this is capable of being settled. Will the election be what we
should say was fair and free in this country, making some allowance for the
great confusion and disorder which prevails ? . . . There are a great number
of parties in Poland. We have agreed that all those that are democratic
parties—not Nazi or Fascist parties or parties of collaborators with the
enemy—all these will be able to take their part.
" These are questions upon which we have the clearest views, in accord-
ance with the principles of the Declaration on liberated Europe, to which all
three Governments have duly subscribed. It is on that basis that the
Moscow Commission of three was intended to work, and it is on that basis
it has already begun to work.
" The impression I brought back from the Crimea, and from all my other
contacts, is that Marshal Stalin and the Soviet leaders wish to live in honour-
able friendship and equality with the Western democracies. I feel also that
their word is their bond, I know of no Government which stands to its
obligations, even in its own despite, more solidly than the Russian Soviet
Government. I decline absolutely to embark here on a discussion about
Russian good faith. It is quite evident that these matters touch the whole
future of the world. Sombre indeed would be the fortunes of mankind if
some awful schism arose between the Western democracies and the Russian
Soviet Union, if all the future world organisations were rent asunder, and
if new cataclysms of inconceivable violence destroyed all that is left of the
treasures and liberties of mankind.
" Finally, on this subject, His Majesty's Government recognise that the
large forces of Polish troops, soldiers, sailors and airmen, now fighting
gallantly^ as they have fought during the whole war, under British command^